GLOBAL KIDNEY ACADEMY

GLOBAL KIDNEY ACADEMY

Resources

Publications

Diagnosis and management of ANCA-associated vasculitis

Kronbichler A, Bajema IM, Bruchfeld A, Mastroianni Kirsztajn GM, Stone JH. Diagnosis and management of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Lancet. 2024;403(10427):683-698. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(23)01736-1

Long-term outcome of kidney function in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis

Alamo BS, Moi L, Bajema I, et al. Long-term outcome of kidney function in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. Published online January 24, 2024. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfae018

Use of avacopan in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2

Barr B, Cheema K, Fifi-Mah A, Garner S, Girard LP. Use of avacopan in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and estimated glomerular filtration rate <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Kidney Int Rep. Published online January 11, 2024. doi:10.1016/j.ekir.2024.01.006

Avacopan for ANCA-associated vasculitis with hypoxic pulmonary haemorrhage

Chalkia A, Flossmann O, Jones R, et al. Avacopan for ANCA-associated vasculitis with hypoxic pulmonary haemorrhage. Nephrol Dial Transplant. Published online January 24, 2024. doi:10.1093/ndt/gfae020

Successful treatment of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis following pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by rituximab and avacopan

Sugawara M, Osanami A, Asai Y, et al. Successful treatment of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis following pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by rituximab and avacopan. Rheumatology (Oxford). Published online August 21, 2023. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kead421

Avacopan improves patient perspective on steroid-related toxicity effects in a case with ANCA-associated vasculitis

Korsten P, Tampe B. Avacopan improves patient perspective on steroid-related toxicity effects in a case with ANCA-associated vasculitis. Rheumatol Adv Pract. 2023;7(2):rkad058. doi:10.1093/rap/rkad058

ANCA associated vasculitis subtypes: recent insights and future perspectives

Austin K, Janagan S, Wells M, Crawshaw H, McAdoo S, Robson JC. ANCA associated vasculitis subtypes: recent insights and future perspectives. J Inflamm Res. 2022;15:2567-2582. doi:10.2147/JIR.S284768

Adjunctive Treatment With Avacopan, an Oral C5a Receptor Inhibitor, in Patients With Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody–Associated Vasculitis

Merkel PA, Niles J, Jimenez R, et al. Adjunctive treatment with avacopan, an oral C5a receptor inhibitor, in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. ACR Open Rheumatol. 2020;2(11):662-671.

Avacopan for the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis

Jayne DRW, Merkel PA, Schall TJ, Bekker P; ADVOCATE Study Group. Avacopan for the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med. 2021;384(7):599-609. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2023386

A novel glucocorticoid-free maintenance regimen for ANCA-associated vasculitis

Pepper RJ, McAdoo SP, Moran SM, et al. A novel glucocorticoid-free maintenance regimen for anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated vasculitis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2019;58(2):260-268. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/key288
Guidelines

KDIGO 2024 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) ANCA Vasculitis Work Group. KDIGO 2024 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-Associated Vasculitis. Kidney Int. 2024 Mar;105(3S):S71-S116. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2023.10.008

Clinical practice guidelines of the Japan Research Committee of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare for Intractable Vasculitis for the management of microscopic polyangiitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis: The 2023 update – secondary publication

Sada KE, Nagasaka K, Kaname S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines of the Japan Research Committee of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare for Intractable Vasculitis for the management of microscopic polyangiitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis: The 2023 update – secondary publication. Mod Rheumatol. Published online July 28, 2023. doi:10.1093/mr/road081

Systematic literature review informing the 2022 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV): part 1—treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis

Schirmer JH, Sanchez-Alamo B, Hellmich B, et al. Systematic literature review informing the 2022 update of the EULAR recommendations for the management of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV): part 1—treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. RMD Open. 2023;9(3):e003082. doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2023-003082

EULAR recommendations for the management of ANCA-associated vasculitis: 2022 update

Hellmich B, Sanchez-Alamo B, Schirmer JH, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of ANCA-associated vasculitis: 2022 update. Ann Rheum Dis . Published Online March 16, 2023. doi:10.1136/ard-2022-223764

Executive Summary

Rovin BH, Adler SG, Barratt J, et al. Executive summary of the KDIGO 2021 Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases. Kidney Int. 2021 Oct;100(4):753-779.

Top 10 takeaways

Takeaways for clinicians from the KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of ANCA-Associated Vasculitis (AAV)
Patient Resources
Patient resources sponsored by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (GARD)
Publications

Efficacy and safety of sparsentan versus irbesartan in patients with IgA nephropathy (PROTECT): 2-year results from a randomised, active-controlled, phase 3 trial

Rovin BH, Barratt J, Heerspink HJL, et al; DUPRO Steering Committee and PROTECT Investigators. Efficacy and safety of sparsentan versus irbesartan in patients with IgA nephropathy (PROTECT): 2-year results from a randomised, active-controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. Published online November 3, 2023. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(23)02302-4

Sparsentan: a first-in-class dual endothelin and angiotensin II receptor antagonist

Chiu AW, Bredenkamp N. Sparsentan: a first-in-class dual endothelin and angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Ann Pharmacother. Published online September 14, 2023. doi:10.1177/10600280231198925

Status of current trials and potential future trials with sparsentan

Trachtman H, Komers R, Inrig J. Status of current trials and potential future trials with sparsentan. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. Published online July 23, 2023. doi:10.1080/14728214.2023.2239151

Sparsentan in patients with IgA nephropathy: a prespecified interim analysis from a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial

Heerspink HJL, Radhakrishnan J, Alpers CE, et al; PROTECT Investigators. Sparsentan in patients with IgA nephropathy: a prespecified interim analysis from a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial. Lancet. 2023;401(10388):1584-1594. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00569-X

Supportive management of IgA nephropathy with renin-angiotensin blockade, the AIIMS Primary IgA Nephropathy Cohort (APPROACH Study)

Bagchi S, Mani K, Swamy A, et al. Supportive management of IgA nephropathy with renin-angiotensin blockade, the AIIMS Primary IgA Nephropathy Cohort (APPROACH) study. Kidney Int Rep. 2021;6(6):1661-1668. doi:10.1016/j.ekir.2021.02.018

Proteinuria reduction as a surrogate end point in trials of IgA nephropathy

Thompson A, Carroll K, Inker LA, et al. Proteinuria reduction as a surrogate end point in trials of IgA nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019;14(3):469-481. doi:10.2215/CJN.08600718

IgA nephropathy

Rodrigues JC, Haas M, Reich HN. IgA nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;12(4):677-686. doi:10.2215/CJN.07420716

Sparsentan in patients with IgA nephropathy: a prespecified interim analysis from a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial

Heerspink HJL, Radhakrishnan J, Alpers CE, et al; for the PROTECT Investigators. Sparsentan in patients with IgA nephropathy: a prespecified interim analysis from a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial. Lancet . 2023;401(10388):1584-1594. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00569-X
Guidelines

2021 Clinical Practice Guideline

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Glomerular Diseases Work Group. KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases. Kidney Int. 2021;100(4S):S1-S276.

Executive Summary

Rovin BH, Adler SG, Barratt J, et al. Executive summary of the KDIGO 2021 Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases. Kidney Int. 2021 Oct;100(4):753-779.

Top 10 takeaways

Top 10 takeaways for clinicians from the KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of IgA Nephropathy

Slide set based on the KDIGO 2021 Glomerular Diseases Guidelines: IgAN slides 2-10

KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases Pathology Slide Set
Patient Resources
All about kidneys: Patient resources sponsored by European Renal Association
IGA Nephropathy Foundation of America
IgA Nephropathy: Patient resources sponsored by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)
Tools
International IgAN Prediction Tool post-biopsy in adults
Publications

Sparsentan versus irbesartan in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

Rheault MN, Alpers CE, Barratt J, et al; DUPRO Steering Committee and DUPLEX Investigators. Sparsentan versus irbesartan in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. N Engl J Med. Published online November 3, 2023. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2308550

DUPLEX study design

Komers R, Diva U, Inrig JK, Loewen A, Trachtman H, Rote WE. Study design of the phase 3 sparsentan versus irbesartan (DUPLEX) study in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Kidney Int Rep. 2020;5(4):494-502.

Therapeutic trials in adult FSGS: lessons learned and the road forward

De Vriese AS, Wetzels JF, Glassock RJ, Sethi S, Fervenza FC. Therapeutic trials in adult FSGS: lessons learned and the road forward. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2021;17(9):619-630. doi:10.1038/s41581-021-00427-1

Diagnosis and treatment of IgA nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, as discussed in a symposium delivered as part of the European Renal Association (ERA) 59th Congress in Paris, France, May 19-22, 2022

Speakers: Loreto Gesualdo, Sian Griffin, Pierre-Louis Tharaux

Recurrence of FSGS after kidney transplantation in adults

Uffing A, Pérez-Sáez MJ, Mazzali M, et al. Recurrence of FSGS after kidney transplantation in adults. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2020;15(2):247-256. doi:10.2215/CJN.08970719

An outcomes-based definition of proteinuria remission in FSGS

Troost JP, Trachtman H, Nachman PH, et al. An outcomes-based definition of proteinuria remission in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;13(3):414-421. doi:10.2215/CJN.04780517

DUET: a phase 2 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of sparsentan in patients with FSGS

Trachtman H, Nelson P, Adler S, et al. DUET: a phase 2 study evaluating the efficacy and safety of sparsentan in patients with FSGS. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018;29(11):2745-2754. doi:10.1681/ASN.2018010091
Guidelines

2021 Clinical Practice Guideline

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Glomerular Diseases Work Group. KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases. Kidney Int. 2021;100(4S):S1-S276.

Executive Summary

Rovin BH, Adler SG, Barratt J, et al. Executive summary of the KDIGO 2021 Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases. Kidney Int. 2021;100(4):753-779.

Top 10 takeaways

Top 10 takeaways for clinicians from the KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

Slide set based on the KDIGO 2021 Glomerular Diseases Guidelines: FSGS slides 27-32

KDIGO 2021 Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Glomerular Diseases Pathology Slide Set
Patient Resources
Patient resources sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation
Publications

Real-world assessment

Germain MJ, Paul SK, Fadda G, et al. Real-world assessment: effectiveness and safety of extended-release calcifediol and other vitamin D therapies for secondary hyperparathyroidism in CKD patients. BMC Nephrol. 2022;23(1):362.

Renal association commentary on the KDIGO (2017) clinical practice guideline update for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of CKD-MBD

Burton JO, Goldsmith DJ, Ruddock N, Shroff R, Wan M. Renal association commentary on the KDIGO (2017) clinical practice guideline update for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of CKD-MBD. BMC Nephrol. 2018;19(1):240. doi:10.1186/s12882-018-1037-8

Rationale for raising current clinical practice guideline target for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in chronic kidney disease

Strugnell SA, Sprague SM, Ashfaq A, Petkovich M, Bishop CW. Rationale for raising current clinical practice guideline target for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol. 2019;49(4):284-293. doi:10.1159/000499187

Extended-release calcifediol in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease: a new therapy for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with hypovitaminosis D

Cozzolino M, Minghetti P, Navarra P. Extended-release calcifediol in stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease: a new therapy for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism associated with hypovitaminosis D. J Nephrol. 2022;35(3):863-873. doi: 10.1007/s40620-021-01152-5.

Secondary hyperparathyroidism and adverse health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease

Xu Y, Evans M, Soro M, Barany P, Carrero JJ. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and adverse health outcomes in adults with chronic kidney disease. Clin Kidny J. 2021;14(10):2213-2220. doi:10.1093/ckj/sfab006
Guidelines
KDIGO 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD)
Patient Resources

American Kidney Fund

Secondary hyperparathyroidism: symptoms, causes & treatment
Publications

Assessment of the physical dependence potential of difelikefalin: randomized placebo-controlled study in patients receiving hemodialysis

Spencer RH, Munera C, Shram MJ, Menzaghi F. Assessment of the physical dependence potential of difelikefalin: randomized placebo-controlled study in patients receiving hemodialysis. Clin Transl Sci. Published online May 1, 2023. doi:10.1111/cts.13538

Difelikefalin for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pruritus associated with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis

Rastogi A, Fishbane S, Lerma E. Difelikefalin for the treatment of moderate-to-severe pruritus associated with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2023;16(5):387-400. doi:10.1080/17512433.2023.2197209

The first real-world experience of IV difelikefalin to treat chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus in haemodialysis patients

Kraft L, Schanz M, Schricker S, et al. The first real-world experience of IV difelikefalin to treat chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus in haemodialysis patients. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. Published online April 5, 2023. doi:10.1111/jdv.19105

Moderate-to-severe pruritus in untreated or non-responsive hemodialysis patients: results of the French prospective multicenter observational study Pruripreva

Lanot A, Bataille S, Rostoker G, et al. Moderate-to-severe pruritus in untreated or non-responsive hemodialysis patients: results of the French prospective multicenter observational study Pruripreva. Clin Kidney J. Published online February 20, 2023. doi:10.1093/ckj/sfad032

Efficacy of difelikefalin for the treatment of moderate to severe pruritus in hemodialysis patients: pooled analysis of KALM-1 and KALM-2 phase 3 studies

Topf J, Wooldridge T, McCafferty K, et al. Efficacy of difelikefalin for the treatment of moderate to severe pruritus in hemodialysis patients: pooled analysis of KALM-1 and KALM-2 phase 3 studies. Kidney Med. 2022;4(8):100512. doi:10.1016/j.xkme.2022.100512

Safety and tolerability of difelikefalin for the treatment of moderate to severe pruritus in hemodialysis patients: pooled analysis from the phase 3 clinical trial program

Fishbane S, Wen W, Munera C, et al. Safety and tolerability of difelikefalin for the treatment of moderate to severe pruritus in hemodialysis patients: pooled analysis from the phase 3 clinical trial program. Kidney Med. 2022;4(8):100513. doi:10.1016/j.xkme.2022.100513

A phase 3 trial of difelikefalin in hemodialysis patients with pruritus

Fishbane S, Jamal A, Munera C, Wen W, Menzaghi F; KALM-1 Trial Investigators. A phase 3 trial of difelikefalin in hemodialysis patients with pruritus. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(3):222-232.

Alleviating symptoms in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: a focus on chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus

Agarwal R, Burton J, Gallieni M, et al. Alleviating symptoms in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis: a focus on chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus. Clin Kidney J . 2022;16(1):30-40. doi:10.1093/ckj/sfac187

Do you feel itchy? A guide towards diagnosis and measurement of chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus in dialysis patients

Manenti L, Leuci E. Do you feel itchy? A guide towards diagnosis and measurement of chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus in dialysis patients. Clin Kidney J . 2021;14(Suppl 3):i8-i15. doi:10.1093/ckj/sfab143

A review of the management of uremic pruritus: current perspectives and future directions

Westby EP, Purdy KS, Tennankore KK. A review of the management of uremic pruritus: current perspectives and future directions. Itch. 2020;5(3):e38. doi:10.1097/itx.0000000000000038

Self-reported pruritus and clinical, dialysis-related, and patient-reported outcomes in hemodialysis patients

Sukul N, Karaboyas A, Csomor PA, et al. Self-reported pruritus and clinical, dialysis-related, and patient-reported outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Med. 2020;3(1):42-53.e1. doi:10.1016/j.xkme.2020.08.011

Pruritus associated with chronic kidney disease: a comprehensive literature review

Swarna SS, Aziz K, Zubair T, Qadir N, Khan M. Pruritus associated with chronic kidney disease: a comprehensive literature review. Cureus. 2019;11(7):e5256. doi:10.7759/cureus.5256

International comparisons of prevalence, awareness, and treatment of pruritus in people on hemodialysis

Rayner HC, Larkina M, Wang M, et al. International comparisons of prevalence, awareness, and treatment of pruritus in people on hemodialysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2017;12(12):2000-2007. doi:10.2215/CJN.03280317
Guidelines

Difelikefalin for treating pruritus in people having haemodialysis

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Committee B Members and NICE Project Team. Difelikefalin for treating pruritus in people having haemodialysis. Guidance published May 17, 2023.

S2k guideline: diagnosis and treatment of chronic pruritus

Ständer S, Zeidler C, Augustin M, et al. S2k guideline: diagnosis and treatment of chronic pruritus. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2022;20(10):1387-1402. doi:10.1111/ddg.14830
Patient Resources
Patient resources sponsored by the American Association of Kidney Patients (AAKP)
Publications

Safety and efficacy of patiromer in hyperkalemic patients with ckd: a pooled analysis of three randomized trials

Haller H, Bianchi S, McCafferty K, et al. Safety and efficacy of patiromer in hyperkalemic patients with ckd: a pooled analysis of three randomized trials. Kidney360. 2022;3(12):2019-2026. doi:10.34067/KID.0001562022

Patiromer for the management of hyperkalemia in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the DIAMOND trial

Butler J, Anker SD, Lund LH, et al. Patiromer for the management of hyperkalemia in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: the DIAMOND trial. Eur Heart J. 2022;43(41):4362-4373. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehac401

Hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease: links, risks and management

Sarnowski A, Gama RM, Dawson A, Mason H, Banerjee D. Hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease: links, risks and management. Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2022;15:215-228. doi:10.2147/IJNRD.S326464

The future burden of CKD in the United States: a simulation model for the CDC CKD Initiative

Hoerger TJ, Simpson SA, Yarnoff BO, et al. The future burden of CKD in the United States: a simulation model for the CDC CKD Initiative. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;65(3):403-411. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2014.09.023

Real-world evaluation of patiromer for the treatment of hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients

Kovesdy CP, Rowan CG, Conrad A, et al. Real-world evaluation of patiromer for the treatment of hyperkalemia in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int Rep. 2018;4(2):301-309. doi: 10.1016/j.ekir.2018.10.020.
Guidelines

Diabetes management in chronic kidney disease: a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO)

de Boer IH, Khunti K, Sadusky T, et al. Diabetes management in chronic kidney disease: a consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Diabetes Care . 2022;45(12):3075-3090. doi:10.2337/dci22-0027

KDIGO 2021 clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease

Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Blood Pressure Work Group. KDIGO 2021 clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int. 2021;99(3S):S1-S87. doi:10.1016/j.kint.2020.11.003
Patient Resources
American Kidney Fund article: High potassium (hyperkalemia): Causes, prevention and treatment